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Selected Scientific Papers

Human Memory and the Learning Process
Foundations for a General Theory of Human Memory
Stanford Technical Reports
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
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Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

Selected papers on adaptive instructional systems to teach (a) reading in the first three grades of elementary school, (b) a computer programming language at the college level, and (c) a foreign language vocabulary. The research was carried out at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University from about 1962 to 1975. For a quick survey, peruse the articles marked with an asterisk ().

Computer Assisted Instruction in Initial Reading: The Stanford Project, Reading Research Quarterly, Autumn 1966
Models for Optimizing the Learning Process, Psychological Bulletin, October 1966
An Optimal Strategy for the Presentation of Paired-Associate Items, Behavioral Science, January 1967
Instruction in Initial Reading Under Computer Control: The Stanford Project (Tech Report No. 113)
Computerized Instruction and the Learning Process, American Psychologist, April 1968
Computer Assisted Instruction, Science, October 4, 1968
Computer Assisted Learning in Action, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, July 1969
An Approach to the Psychology of Instruction, Psychological Bulletin, 1972
Instruction in Initial Reading under Computer Control: The Stanford Project (Tech Report No. 158)
Computer-assisted Instruction in Programming: AID (Tech Report No. 164)
Evaluation of the Stanford CAI Program in Initial Reading, Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972
Student Performance in Computer-assisted Instruction in Programming (Tech Report No. 184)
Ingredients for a Theory of Instruction, American Psychologist, October 1972
Optimizing the Learning of a Second Language Vocabulary, Journal of Experimental Psychology, November 1972
Optimal Allocation of Instructional Effort to Interrelated Learning Strands, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, February 1973
Computer-assisted Instruction in Initial Reading (Tech Report No. 207)
Teaching Children to Read Using a Computer, American Psychologist, March 1974
An Application of the Mnemonic Keyword Method to the Acquisition of a Russian Vocabulary, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, March 1975
A Rationale and Description of a CAI Program to Teach the BASIC Programming Language, Instructional Science, April 1975
Mnemotechnics in Second-Language Learning, American Psychologist, August 1975
Adaptive Instructional Systems: Some Attempts to Optimize the Learning Process published in Cognition and Instruction, edited by D. Klaher, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates, 1976
Application of Learning Models and Optimization Theory to Problems of Instruction (Tech Report No. 264) Published in Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes (Vol. 5), edited by W.K. Estes, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates, 1978
Computer Assisted Instruction: Optimizing the Learning Process Edited transcript of a speech at a symposium in honor of William K. Estes entitled “From Principles of Cognitive Science to MOOCS”. Annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science held in San Francisco, May 2014.
Vannevar Sets the Stage: An essay published in an anthology celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the establishment of the National Academy of Education. The citation for the book: Feuer, M.J., Berman, A. I., & Atkinson, R.C. (Eds.). (2015). Past as Prologue: The National Academy of Education at 50. Members Reflect. Washington, DC: National Academy of Education.
VIDEO: Teaching Children to Read Using a Computer—1973